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Saturday, September 28, 2013

Neolithic

Agriculture was invented in the Middle East, but many researchers found it hard to believe that people from that part of the world would have embarked on an endless march across the Bosporus and into the north.


Natufians

There was war between Sub-Saharans–the ancestors of modern Black Africans and ancestors of the North African/Levantine/European people, 13 kya. link


Sudden climate change might have forced several Neolithic cultures/people to shift toward the border of present-day Sudan and Egypt, near Lake Nubia.
A recent archaeological study reveals that during a desiccation period in North Africa, while the eastern Sahara was depopulated, a refugium existed on the border of present-day Sudan and Egypt, near Lake Nubia, until the onset of a humid phase around 8500 bc.

The most ancient osteological evidence for thalassemia comes from the Near East, from a skeleton excavated at the now submerged village of Atlit Yam off the coast of Israel, dating to about 10 kya. (Hershkovitz 1991)

Recent excavations in Anatolia show, is the fact that the ancient farmers did not leave their core region for almost 2 ky.
At around 7000 BC, a mass migration of farmers began from the Middle East to Europe. In 2,500 years, agriculture spread uniformly from Greece to the British Isles.
These ancient farmers brought along domesticated cattle and pigs.

Mesolithic hunter-gatherers were present in Macedonia region just before the first appearance of Neolithic pottery.
Mesolithic foragers in the Balkans consumed domesticated plant foods already by ∼6600 cal. BC, if not earlier. (Cristiani 2016)

It seems that the Neolithic (6500 bc) populations in Tell Qarassa, Tell Qaramel, in Syria; Ak├žalar, Aktoprakl─▒k, in Turkey were massacred.


Genetic data from ancient human remains found in Europe have shown that the most of early Neolithic farmers were not descended from the hunter-gatherers who lived there before.

A climatic crisis struck farmers around 6200 bc. This event had far-reaching consequences. It seems to have hit Balkan foragers as well as the Near Eastern farmers.
Then there was the new wave of farmers after 6200 bc.

Past research had detected milk residues in other sites in northwestern Anatolia about 8 kya and in Libya nearly 7 kya.




Modern Europeans are not direct descendants of the Neolithic farmers.



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