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Saturday, September 28, 2013

Historic genomics



Anemia
Anemia predates pre-human species.
There are three sources of anemia in any population: parasites, genes, and diet.




Malaria is an ancient disease caused by the Plasmodium organism. Evidence shows that P. falciparum causing malignant tertian malaria originated in Central Africa 165 million years ago and migrated towards the Mediterranean at the end of the last Ice Age. P. vivax and P. malariae causing more benign malaria probably originated in South-East Asia.
....malaria only attacked these populations at a relatively recent date in terms of biological evolution, i. e. in the last few centuries. (Unesco



Sickle cell anemia
You must inherit the defective gene from both parents to develop sickle cell anemia.  link













Geneticists founds that Y Hg E, J and R1b were associated with the spread of sickle cell disease.

















This constitutes direct evidence for gene flow linked to human migration from central Africa to Mediterranean Europe via Greece in historical times. (Salares 2004)

Beta thalassemia
You must inherit the defective gene from both parents to develop thalassemia major. Risk factors for thalassemia include: Asian, Chinese, Mediterranean, or African American ethnicity. 

The most ancient osteological evidence for thalassemia comes from the Near East, Israel, dating to about 10,000 years ago. 

Tuberculosis 

Coalescent analyses indicate that MTBC (tuberculosis) emerged about 70,000 ya in Africa accompanied migrations of anatomically modern humans out of Africa and expanded with a first migration along the Indian Ocean around 65,000 years ago, followed by second wave into Eurasia around 40,000 years ago. 
Calculation of the effective population sizes revealed a strong correlation between Mtb and human mtDNAs, with both measures exhibiting an increase around 8-10,000 years ago.



Milk 
Homo sapiens were originally unable to digest raw milk. Generally, the human body only produces an enzyme that can break down lactose in the small intestine during the first few years of life.

Evidence of milking first appears around the Sea of Marmara c. 6500–5000 BC.

A clue that it occurred first among R1b-dominant people is provided by its appearance among the Fulani, a Chadic-speaking tribe of pastoralists.


Thus, Basques cannot be considered as a genetic outliers under a general genome scope and interpretations on their origin must to be revised.










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