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Saturday, September 28, 2013

Bronze Age

3300 BC

In the area of the Central Balkans, especially in its south-west part, where a latter concentration of the Macedonians (aka Brigians) is supposed, there is continuity in tumuli burials from the Early Bronze Age up to the Iron Age II. 
This continuity was not essentially disturbed by the latter settling, which shows that the populations settled in the Early Bronze Age continued to live in this area during the whole 2nd and in the beginning of the 1st millennium bc.

According to the burial types and the specific features of the material culture some cultural groups, later to become ethnic groups, may be defined.
Certain proto-populations occupying distinct areas of the Balkans could be distinguished on the territories of the cultural groups.

Towards the end of the Late Bronze Age and in the beginning of the Iron Age I, a specific matt geometric painted pottery, made rather according to the model from the mid Helladic traditions than to the Mycenaean pottery, appeared in the south-western part of the Central Balkans.
This pottery, along with the characteristic metal production of weapons and jewelry, especially the pins decorated in a manner similar to the pottery, became an essential characteristic of the region inhabited by the Macedonians (aka Brigians).

The earliest tin bronze artifacts in Eurasia were found in Serbia (Balkan) 6500 ya. (Radivojević 2013)


The Bell Beaker Complex (2750 bc) rapidly spread throughout large part of Europe and northern Africa, where they overlapped geographically with the Corded Ware Complex.
Skeletons from Bell Beaker and Corded Ware sites are similar to tall and robust Mesolithic populations, rather than the shorter-limbed, more gracile types found at many sites of the early European Neolithic. (Vancata 2001, Gallagher 2009)

Escacena postulated a common origin for Egyptian predynastic El-Badari culture and Iberian cultures (dating to about 2000 b.c.), suggesting that Saharan's emigrated to both Iberia and the Nile Valley because of increasing aridity. 
The Egyptians Pyramids were not built by slaves; the ancient Egyptians were capable for achievements in engineering and everything.

Climate change has been suggested as a possible cause for the decline of urban centers of the Indus Civilization ∼4000 yr ago. (Dixit 2014)

About 1250 bc, there was a Bronze Age war (southern Europeans and others vs Poland's and Scandinavians) in northern Germany. (Curry 2016)


The Late Bronze Age collapse
Climate change may have driven the collapse of Eastern Mediterranean civilizations around 1300 – 1200 BC. (Kaniewski 2013)
The Phoenician cities were untouched by the incursions of the “Sea Peoples” c. 1200 BC, which caused the collapse of the Mycenean and Hittite empires and the decline of Egypt, Assyria, Syria (Boileauau 2010)


Near East

Central Asia

South Asia

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