The Dark Ages
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire
One of the great questions of Western history, if not the great question, is "Why did Rome fall?"
It might be better to ask, "Did Rome fall?"
Bulgars...Tatars may be descendants of ancient Bulgars.
Most of Steppe people have disappeared relatively rapidly from the historical stage and the Balkan.
The phantom time (614–911 ad) vs genetics
the Moors (consisting of Arabs and Berbers) invaded Europe via Gibraltar (conquering Hispania—the Iberian Peninsula—from the Visigothic Kingdom in 711), before being halted.
During the Khazar–Arab Wars, the Khazars stopped the Arab expansion into Europe across the Caucasus (7th and 8th centuries).
Arab armies allegedly attempted to invade southeast Europe via Asia Minor during the late seventh and early eighth centuries, but were defeated at the siege of Constantinople (717–718) .
The Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin (~895 ad)...
The Norse expansion had a significant demographic effect over Europe (203).
The Muslims conquered most of Sicily from the Christians by 902.
The Great Schism
Romani people are known to have reached the Roman (aka fake Byzantine) Empire (modern day Turkey and Greece) by the tenth century (Fraser 1992).
Geneticists find evidence for a Romani genetic lineage in England long before their recorded arrival there.