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Saturday, September 28, 2013

Population genetic relationships between Mediterranean populations determined by gene distribution and a historic perspective

Gene flow from Africa to Europe is not merely reflected on the Y and X chromosomes, but corresponds to much broadest effects.


As people walked “Out of Africa theory”, they were differentiating along the way.
Some of these people have met Neanderthals and Denisovans.

Scientists know that the first modern humans to migrate to Europe via Balkan were hunter-gatherers-they arrived ~ 40.000 ya.

The Neanderthals were replaced by modern human populations.

The most frequent Y dna haplogroup in Macedonian males is I (>31.0%).

Climate changes froze large part of Europe; scientific data revealed the existence of refugia in the Balkan, the Iberian, Italian peninsula; in Ukraine. So, how Europe was repopulated?

After the Ice Age, there’s a re-peopling of Europe probably from the southwest and the southeast; maybe even from Anatolia, Turkey.(?)

Again, after 9 kya, there’s a mass movement of farmers into the Europe which almost completely replaces the hunter-gatherers with a small amount of mixture.
Macedonia's first (and later) farmers almost replaced European and Russian steppes Stone-Age hunter-gatherer forerunners. 
Mesolithic people don't disappeared; there is evidence that hunter gatherers raided farming communities and captured women’s.

Copper age 
Macedonians appeared in Sardinia c. 4.000 bc. (001;)
Around 3200 BC, the culture of Macedonians migrated, to the Aegean Sea and to Crete.

Bronze age 

And then again, after 5 kya, there’s this mass movement at the beginning of the Bronze Age of people from the steppe.

Dispersed in the mayor parts of the Mediterranean, the Balkans, Asia Minor and Italy, the Macedonians (Pelasgians, Brygians, Phrygians, Paeonians etc) have left many traces of their existence from the Early Bronze Age to the classical period, which could not be avoided.

Iron age 

Gauls never arrived in Macedonia or Balkan.

Roman period
Christianity came early to Macedonia, with Paul in the first century AD.
Romans don’t left genetic traces in Macedonia, nor in the Middle East.

Early medieval period

Medieval period
Roman Empire never was East, never was Byzantium empire.

In the 855 ad the brothers Cyril and Methody create the first "Slavonic" alphabet.

There is no scientific evidence that Macedonia come under the control of the Bulgarians, Romans, Latin Crusaders, Serbs.

Population dynamics during and after Muslim (Turkish) invasion of the Balkans, substantially influenced the population structure of Ethnic Macedonia (in areas where are now Albania, Kosovo, Greece).

Sub-Saharan gene flow detected in Europe entered with North African gene flow; the pulse of gene flow occurred less than 15 generations ago.

References can be found using links, on their detailed release page

Macedonian Language

Partition of Macedonia

Macedonia under the Ottoman Empire

Gene flow from Africa to Europe is not merely reflected on the Y and X chromosomes, but corresponds to much broadest effects.

Medieval time


Macedonia in the Roman times

Macedonistic time

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Copyright © since time of Macedonian Civilization

Iron age

1200 BC

Bronze Age

3300 BC

The Baden culture, c. 3600–2800 BC

The Corded Ware culture 2900 BCE – circa 2350 BCE
...The Vučedol culture flourished between 3000 and 2200 BC
The Bell-Beaker culture 2900–1800 BC


Copper Age

5000 BC


The Younger Dryas (14.5 kya)


There was war between Sub-Saharans–the ancestors of modern Black Africans and ancestors of the North African/Levantine/European people, 11 kya.

At first, the original I2-P37 hunter-gatherer populations appear to have retreated to the fringes of Europe.

11.5 kya

The Sahara Desert used to be green and lush. Then humans showed up.

The most ancient osteological evidence for thalassaemia comes from the Near East, Israel, dating to about 10 kya.

Göbekli Tepe


The Sea of Marmara and Sahara were two other important sources of human reservoirs present during Neolithic.

A refugium existed on the border of present-day Sudan and Egypt, near Lake Nubia.

Population diversity in Europe did not change significantly until the alleged arrival of farmers from the Near and Far East, researchers say.

Where did the Neolithic farmers come from?

Natufians are not the source of the European Neolithic.

The Spread of (Early) Farming in Europe
There were multiple migrations of Neolithic people via and from Macedonia into Europe; no doubt, went by the land route.

The earliest farmers on Macedonian (Macedonian Peninsula) mainland in Čuka-Topolčani; dated pretty early, ~7050 bc had made no pottery.
The remains of "Slave" (001) from Grncarica were found in a characteristic burial position known from the Neolithic era, with the body facing the east. Radiocarbon dating (here 002) determined that the skeleton dated back to 6745 bc.

The Mesolithic natives have probably made some contacts with the newly came populations, but they did not contribute significantly in the establishment of the farmers communities.

The first sign of intensive milking comes from the lush pastures around the Sea of Marmara.

A climatic crisis struck farmers around 6200 bc. This event had far-reaching consequences. It seems to have hit foragers as well as farmers.
The new wave of farmers carried red, burnished, monochrome pottery with them.
Pottery painted with geometric designs appeared after 6200 bc at Tell Sabi Abyad.

Macedonians being responsible for the rise of the First Civilization in Europe.
Starčevo–Körös–Criş culture
LBK spread from the Balkans into central Europe.

Macedonians were more “Bronze Age” than “Stone Age”… this at a time when the rest of Europe and the Near East was not even a “Stone Age civilization”.

Genetic data from ancient human remains found in Europe have shown that the most of modern europeans were not descended from the hunter-gatherers, nor from neolithic farmers who lived there before.


20000 bc

New genomic data suggests that when Europeans emerged from the last ice age, they were close to becoming extinct. 

10000 bc

The population of Europe was tiny by comparison with today. It has been estimated from archaeological data at 4400–5900 inhabitants.

DNA extracted from the remains of post-LGM Mesolithic individuals reveals that they had genetically little in common with Paleolithic and today European populations. 

Population diversity in Europe did not change significantly until the arrival of farmers from the Near East, researchers say.

Modern Europeans are not direct descendants of the Mesolithic hunter-gatherers.


Homo Sapiens vs Homo Erectus

After early humans migrated out of Africa around 60 kya, they bumped into Neanderthals somewhere in what is now the Middle East. Some got rather cosy with each other.

Anatomically modern man (Homo sapiens sapiens) crossed into Europe from X area some 45 kya. ...
They were part of a single founding population that didn’t significantly interbreed with other human populations; but some of them again had bumped into Neanderthals.

The Twilight Zone

Life on Earth began (how?) more than 3 billion years ago.
But, why new life (forms) were not formed 6 seconds, 3 months, 500 years etc later?

In order for life to have gotten started, there must have been a genetic molecule; something like DNA or RNA, capable of passing along blueprints for making proteins.
Not even a single protein inside the cell can form spontaneously and by chance, let alone entire genes.

The RNA World hypothesis got a big boost in 2009.

The study of human evolution has always been messy, and everyday findings just make it all the messier.

the 48 chromosomes in apes gradually declined to 46; so human beings were the result.

Lower Paleolithic
(c. 3.3 Ma – 300 ka)
Oldowan (2.6–1.7 Ma)
Riwat (1.9–0.045 Ma)
Madrasian Culture (1.5 Ma)
Soanian (0.5–0.13 Ma)
Acheulean (1.8–0.1 Ma)
Clactonian (0.3–0.2 Ma)
Middle Paleolithic
(300–45 ka)
Mousterian (150–40 ka)
Micoquien (130–70 ka) The human remains in China can be bracketed to 116–106 ka. (Cai 2016)
Aterian (82 ka)

Indeed, all found fossils are of complete humans, animals and plants, not works in progress "under construction".

Historic genomics

Anemia predates pre-human species.
There are three sources of anemia in any population: parasites, genes, and diet.

Malaria is an ancient disease caused by the Plasmodium organism. Evidence shows that P. falciparum causing malignant tertian malaria originated in Central Africa 165 million years ago and migrated towards the Mediterranean at the end of the last Ice Age. P. vivax and P. malariae causing more benign malaria probably originated in South-East Asia.
....malaria only attacked these populations at a relatively recent date in terms of biological evolution, i. e. in the last few centuries. (Unesco

Sickle cell anemia
You must inherit the defective gene from both parents to develop sickle cell anemia.  link

Geneticists founds that Y Hg E, J and R1b were associated with the spread of sickle cell disease.

This constitutes direct evidence for gene flow linked to human migration from central Africa to Mediterranean Europe via Greece in historical times. (Salares 2004)

Beta thalassemia
You must inherit the defective gene from both parents to develop thalassemia major. Risk factors for thalassemia include: Asian, Chinese, Mediterranean, or African American ethnicity. 

The most ancient osteological evidence for thalassemia comes from the Near East, Israel, dating to about 10,000 years ago. 


Coalescent analyses indicate that MTBC (tuberculosis) emerged about 70,000 ya in Africa accompanied migrations of anatomically modern humans out of Africa and expanded with a first migration along the Indian Ocean around 65,000 years ago, followed by second wave into Eurasia around 40,000 years ago. 
Calculation of the effective population sizes revealed a strong correlation between Mtb and human mtDNAs, with both measures exhibiting an increase around 8-10,000 years ago.

Homo sapiens were originally unable to digest raw milk. Generally, the human body only produces an enzyme that can break down lactose in the small intestine during the first few years of life.

Evidence of milking first appears around the Sea of Marmara c. 6500–5000 BC.

A clue that it occurred first among R1b-dominant people is provided by its appearance among the Fulani, a Chadic-speaking tribe of pastoralists.

Thus, Basques cannot be considered as a genetic outliers under a general genome scope and interpretations on their origin must to be revised.

History is a largely subjective area

Sub Saharan origin of Greeks

The territory that is now Greece has several ethnic groups and major religions are present.
It is now necessary to rely on other (non historical) sources, such as genetics, archaeology, linguistics, etc, to establish a more objective history of Balkan and particularly ancient (and today) Greece.

Analyses of ancient DNA, without doubts, show that Balkan (also Europe) was populated by people that give rise to most of today Macedonians.
The lot of people who live in the modern region of Greece should all be able to call themselves Macedonians; most of so called Greeks are newcomers, potatoes, peppers etc. are much older than them.

So called Greeks are not related to the Macedonians in R of Macedonia, nor to the Macedonians in Aegean part of Macedonia...

So, sub-Saharan and other Africans were compared with all available Mediterranean groups in order to solve the question of the unique Greek genetic profile.

The three main sources of the “Greeks” paternal gene pool were identified as African, Levantine (031,034) and Asian (032).

E Y-DNA haplogroup would appear to have arisen in Africa.

J Y-DNA haplogroup evolved in the ancient....

R Y-DNA haplogroup is believed to have arisen in Asia.


Africans across the sea were not mentioned by Darius.

The coming of the African / Levantine unnamed tribes to Macedonian Peninsula part 1

They were Pirates, according to the geneticist King 2008, the first Greeks are less likely to have come overland.

Anyway, when Ethiopians, Sub Saharans and West Africans came trooping out of Africa ~2x00 (?) years ago, they would have looked very different from their European and Macedonian cousins.
What is certain is that when the dark-skinned Africans met the Macedonians, it was probably like two alien groups meeting on Star Trek.

Eerily, this new evidence suggests that the two groups never were interbreeding very nearly right up to the time when the Africans ceased to exist.

No doubt that the Africans were deeply influenced by the Macedonian people and from them the Africans probably learned skills such as stone masonry, shipbuilding, navigation, the cultivation of the olive and certain other crops, and the worship of certain female deities (with associated, new spiritual concepts).

Malaria became a problem in Macedonia. This situation in Balkan does not bode well.
What is still a mystery, though, is what happened to the Africans? 
Why did they disappear even as Macedonians continued on? 

The modern Greeks would love to know they're descended from the ancient Greeks.
But since fabricated Lamian Wars, so called Greece has been invaded and occupied so many times I'm not sure we're going to get the answer they want.

The coming of the African / Levantine unnamed tribes to Macedonian Peninsula part 2

In 168 bc and 146 bc the Roman Empire conquered Macedonia and Achaia (not Greece) respectively.

It happened in the 1500s as a result of Sultan needing workers in Yunanistan. Sultan went all the way to Africa to pick Africans up and set them in the mountains, in growing olives and herding livestock. (Bethwell 1974, Bagley 1997, Campbell 2003)

Then, they had read the Bible in Koine language; but this fact do not means that they were "Greeks"; this is not an ethnic meaning of "Greek".

Athens was Albanian-speaking before being the capital of independent "Greece".

The coming of the Turkish Orthodox Christians to Macedonian Peninsula


Roman Empire never was East, never was Byzantium empire.

In 1800's Bavarian’s Kings injected white hormones into their skin, so Africans can appear white.

Today the Greek Government had decoded the "greek" DNA introduced in their minds during the 1800's to prevent Byron`s spinning in his grave.

The conclusion is that Byron must be spinning in his grave.

Shqiptar Ghegs aka Albanians fake Illirians

Albanian-speaking people in Balkans can be divided into two major groups:
-descendants of the Albanised, true Macedonians; 
-people brought by Ottoman Turks; the Ghegs (in the North) and the Tosks (in the South), according to the Shqip (aka Albanian) dialect they speak.

Analysis of ancient DNA has so far confirmed the claims that Shqiptars are not related to pre Ottoman period populations...

Genetically speaking, Shqiptars belong to the Y dna hg`s E, J and R1b.

Y-DNA haplogroup E would appear to have arisen in Africa. The most frequent haplogroup in Shqiptar males is E.

Y-DNA haplogroup J would evolved in the ancient Near East.

R1b-M343 is believed to have arisen in southwest Asia.


Gheg Shqiptars come from primitive Saharan stock 021.
E-V13 was introduced in Shqiptars Ghegs in R of Macedonia 8.2 kya.;

E-V13 was introduced in Albanians 5 kya; it was absent among Yamnaya herders, so Shqiptars are not their (the only possible modern) descendants, as is stated by 951, 952.

J-M241 was introduced in Albanians 4 kya;
J-M241 was introduced in Shqiptars Ghegs in R of Macedonia 2 kya; clearly postdates the Illirians.

Gheg Shqiptars in R. of Macedonia (71.2 %) are not part of lactose tolerant population that spread with dairy farming or peoples adopting pastoralism.
The Albanian R1b cluster is in fact very young....clearly postdates the Illirians.

Illyrians were coastal people, while Albanians are mountainous since they lack maritime vocabulary.

Avars settlements have been found in Albania.

Albanian people have a risk to give birth to children with CF higher than the rest of Europeans.

Bear in the mind that their facial parameters show a Dagestan, Iranian, Kurdish, Arab, North African etc admixture.

Shqiptar`s small village and Arbereshe
The Albanian-speaking individuals (from Albania and Kosovo) descended from ~200 ancestors from 0-500 ya; most of these originated from a small village rather than uniformly across Albania and Kosovo.
It`s seems that small Albanian-speaking village was located so far from Europe.

The Arbereshe represent an ideal link between Shqiptar Ghegs in Italy and Shqiptar Ghegs from Balkans.
It is not yet clear, how the most of the Arbereshe (that descended from 200–900 migrants) started moving from the small village in south of Albania (Toskeria) to Italy, 500 ya?

Arbereshe have interesting genetic structure.

Genetic evidence suggests that the Shqiptar source populations were at least in part already differentiated before their migrations to Macedonian Peninsula and Italy.

The Heritage of Ottoman Islam in the Balkans
Population dynamics after Muslim (Turkish) invasion of the Balkans, substantially influenced the population structure of Ethnic Macedonia in areas where is now R. Macedonia, Albania, Kosovo, Greece etc. (Albanian speaking areas)

When the Turks first entered Europe, Macedonia, there was no indigenous Shqiptar (Albanian) man, nor civilization or clash of cultures for the simple reason that Shqiptars did not have a presence in the European region.

Albanian coast was strategically important place for Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire was Islamic in religion. Albanian ports were important places; from where some new crusaders could be penetrate into Islamic State.

The first undisputed mention of Albanians in the historical record is during the Ottoman Empire. They were known as Arnauts (ارناود); old term used mainly from Turks.

The Albanais (in French) are first mentioned in 1612 ad, the word Albanians (in English) (both words means Mountaineers) is known from more recent times.

Genocide against Macedonians and Albanised Macedonians

Only a small percentage of the Y-DNA of Shqiptars; less than xx percent, originated outside of the Shqiptar Albania, presumably as converts.

Genetic evidence suggests that the Tosks fell well within the Balkan cluster, whereas the Ghegs are related to the North Africans.

Shqiptars are the legatees of long years of inbreeding, lack of education and foreign-particularly Turkish occupation. (Lucas 2007) ; there are three main inbreed clusters, one toward the North, the second in Central Albania, and the third in the South. (Mikerezi 2013)

The expansion of the Arnauts occurs only in the last 250 years, with the great help of the Turkish state.

Frequencies of mtDNA Haplogroups in Macedonians

L0 and L1–6 

M and N






R0a1; 60.1T; HV

HV0 and H
HV0a1 and V