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Saturday, September 28, 2013

Macedonians-Who They Are?

This page is dedicated to the Macedonian civilization.
Those people who are not Macedonians have problems to define what constitutes “Macedonia” presents something of an historical and political problem. We will try to answer all the obscure questions posed by those who aren't Macedonians and all those who have the wrong idea about us. We will try to answer all questions to be consistent research of modern science, of course there are other sources, such as "history" and the Bible, etc and slowly to form a mosaic called Macedonia and Macedonians.

What do we call a nation? – People who are of the same origin and who speak the same words and who live and make friends of each other, who have the same customs and songs and entertainment are what we call a nation, and the place where that people lives is called the people's country. 
Thus the Macedonians also are a nation and the place which is theirs is called Macedonia. (Puleski 1817–1895 ad)

Territory where Ethnic Macedonians live coincides with the territory of the alleged kingdom of Macedon that was united by the Macedonian Kings, Philip II and Alexander III of Macedon. 
Ethnic Macedonians live in Republic of Macedonia; the Aegean part of Macedonia (since 1913 ad part of Δημοκρατία της βόρειος Αιθιοπίας); Pirin part of Macedonia (since 1913 ad part of Bulgaria); across Albania;  Kosovo; Serbia.

Epidemiological genomics
Anemia predates pre-human species. (Retief 2004)

Historic genomics
Since history is a largely subjective area in terms of our present knowledge (); the existence or absence of gene flow among neighboring ethnic groups may be assessed with the study of HLA frequencies and the corresponding genetic distances.

Modern versus ancient DNA
Ancient DNA can tell us with certainty who is descended from whom.

Language is crucial to understanding Europe's past. Today languages can be spread by education and modern communications. In prehistory the only way languages could spread was by migration of people. So a complete language replacement in a particular region signifies a population change.

Population genetic relationships between Macedonians and neighbor Balkan populations
According to the results of the comparative analysis, we can conclude that population differences between observed populations are expected.
Ethnic Macedonian population shows moderate Y-STR differentiation versus other Balkan populations.

As the obtained results indicate, genetic distance recorded between Macedonian population and ethnic Albanians from Kosovo is relatively high.
These findings are curious considering that Kosovo and Republic Macedonia share a border.
In addition, "almost 25%" of Republic Macedonia citizens constitute ethnic Albanians who share the origins with Albanian population in Kosovo.

The historic basis of the present day Balkan conflict between Macedonians and their neighbors
What is certain is that when the dark-skinned Africans met the Macedonians, it was probably like several alien groups meeting on Star Trek.

Population genetic relationships between Mediterranean populations determined by gene distribution and a historic perspective


If so, where they had lived?
The Sea of Marmara and Sahara were two other important sources of human reservoirs present during Neolithic.

Lactase persistence genes first arose among R1b-dominant people-the Fulani, a Chadic-speaking tribe of pastoralists. The African Fulani and Europeans share the origin of this mutation and also share a dairy culture.

R1b Europeans descended from one to three men, whose numbers expanded more than a thousandfold.


Like most Eurasians, the Macedonian genomes exhibit a mixture of three major components: European; Eurasian and Mediterranean (Southwest Asian and Northern African).

As people walked “Out of Africa theory”, they were differentiating along the way.

About 45 kya, in the midst of the last ice age, modern humans began arriving in what we now call Europe; they were part of a single founding population that didn’t significantly interbreed with other human populations; but some of them bumped into Neanderthals.

Climate changes froze large part of Europe; scientific data has revealed the existence of refugia in the Balkan, the Iberian, Italian peninsula; in Ukraine. So, how Europe was repopulated?

When the glaciers melted, about 16 kya, Paleolithic people were replaced by anatomically and genetically speaking "new" Macedonian population.

Mesolithic hunter-gatherers were present in Macedonia region just before the first appearance of Neolithic pottery.21

Waves of migrants from Balkan caused large-scale population replacement/extinctions in Europe from the Neolithic onwards.

The Sea of Marmara and Sahara were two other important sources of human reservoirs present during Neolithic.

Then, the second wave of Neolithic migration caused a much stronger impact on the genetic make-up of the European and Yamnaya populations.

A new culture, created by Macedonians appeared in Sardinia ~ 4.000 bc. (Dyson 2007)

Around 3500 bc, the culture (Watrous 1982) and genes of Macedonia (Old Europe) migrated, to the Aegean Sea and to Crete. Macedonians were the origin of the Minoan civilization.

Yamnaya herders were unable to digest milk. These Europeans mysteriously vanished.

Dispersed in the mayor parts of the Mediterranean, the Macedonian Peninsula, Asia Minor and Italy (as Celts 1; 2;), the Macedonians left many traces of their existence from the Early Bronze Age to the classical period, which could not be avoided.

There were no Indo-European invasions, nor Trojan War, nor Dark Age in Mediterranean.

During the later Iron Age, Macedonian Peninsula received an influx of Africans.
What is certain is that when the dark-skinned, Sub Saharan African unnamed tribes met the Macedonians, it was probably like two alien groups meeting on Star Trek.

19th century historians fabricated (aka focused) all the culture in what is now Greece ignoring all the other Mediterranean cultures present in the area long before the classical African (aka Greek) one (1).

Christianity came early to Macedonia, with Paul in the first century AD.
The existence of Jewish people in Macedonia dates back to ancient times.

Romans don’t left their genetic traces in Macedonia, nor in the Middle East.

The Medieval Migration Period was a key period in establishing the current West Eurasian genetic landscape.

There is no genetic evidence that “from the 6th century Slavic tribes had spread over the Balkan provinces of the Roman (aka fake Byzantine) Empire”.

In the 855 ad the brothers Cyril and Methody create the first Slavonic alphabet.

There is no scientific evidence that Macedonia come under the control of the Bulgarians, Romans, Latin Crusaders, Serbs.

It wasn’t until about 1000 years ago that lactose tolerance swept through Europe. Still this mutation could have come from Balkans.

Population dynamics after Muslim (Turkish) invasion of the Balkans, substantially influenced the population structure of Ethnic Macedonia (in areas where is now Albania, Kosovo, Greece etc).

Macedonian Language

Partition of Macedonia

Macedonia under the Ottoman Empire

A recent migrations from North Africa contributed substantially to the higher genetic diversity in southwestern Europe. (606)
Sub- Saharan gene flow detected in Europe entered with North African gene flow. (606)
Southeastern European populations share more IBD segments with Egypt and the Near East. (606)

A migration event from North Africa to Europe would have occurred at least 6–10 generations ago (∼240–300 ya) in Spain, and at least 5–7 generations ago in France and Italy. (606)

Medieval time

The Visigoths / Ostrogoths have Slavic names: Valamir, Thiudimir and Vidimir. Did they actually were Germans? (Wolfram1988) 
So, Slavic names become popular in other (non-Slavic) countries.

If the rare TA haplotype found in ancient Britain instead suggests the presence of people of Romani ancestry in tenth century England, this is in surprising contradiction to historical evidence indicating that the Romani first left India—as mercenary soldiers or camp followers—at around AD 1000 (Hancock 2002).


More than 4,700 archaeological sites have been identified on the archaeological soil of Republic of Macedonia. None of these archaeological sites can be connected to the alleged arrival of medieval Slavs.

Ancient dna and so called Slavs
As more and more results of ancient DNA extracted from pre Neolithic skeletons were published, it became apparent that their y dna and mtdna types were quite different from those of modern Europeans and Steppe People.

Eneolithic and Bronze Age kurgan groups from Eastern Europe had dark skin. (Wilde 2014)

Ethnogenesis of the so called Slavs
Macedonians belong to the ‘‘older’’ Mediterranean substratum, like Lebanese, Turks (Anatolians), Armenians and Iranians.
Pre Neolithic Europeans do not belong to the ‘‘older’’ Mediterranean substratum.
Modern Europeans belong to the ‘‘older’’ Mediterranean substratum.
We now turn to discuss possible causes and implications of these results.

Prehistoric eastern Europeans were the recipients of multiple migrations from the East in prehistory that had not been previously detected and/or timed on the basis of modern Y dna and mtDNA data.

Geneticists have found that modern Europeans descend (largely) as the neighbors of the Fulani people, not from the non-milk drinkers who preceded them.

Eastern Europe individuals have a comparatively large proportion of ancestry drawn from a relatively small population that expanded over a large geographic area, ancestry which we date to 1-2 kya. (Ralph 2012)

Genetic relationships between today Macedonians and so called Slavs
Modern science provides limited genetic link between Macedonians and so called Eastern Slavs. Both Macedonians and so called Eastern Slavs have much more complex genetic population history than the traditional tree-based linguistic (or fake historic) model would suggest.

Macedonia in the Roman times

Macedonistic time

The literary tradition considered the Macedonians (aka Phrygians) as the oldest population in the world.
The Macedonians entered the history of the Hellenic culture and civilization also as predecessors and inventors of many skills.
The metal production and the beginning of coinage in Asia Minor are also connected to the Macedonians.
Although the Hellenes attributed all the inventions of the ancient world to them, the Macedonians, tended to enter the Hellenic cultural sphere.

Anyhow, dispersed in the mayor parts of the Mediterranean, the Balkans, Asia Minor and Italy, the Macedonians (aka Brigians) have left many traces of their existence from the Early Bronze Age to the classical period, which could not be avoided.

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Iron age

On the basis of the conclusions of a certain number of archaeologists, historians and linguists, this should be the first wave of the migrations of the Macedonians (aka Brigians) toward Asia Minor, which, unfortunately is not documented in the archaeological researches.

The second wave of migrations of the Macedonians (aka Brigians) is supposed in the period after the alleged Trojan war, when a considerable number of populations from Southeast Europe, settled in Asia Minor.
In this stage of migration the Macedonians were most probably not so numerous, as they did not influence the changes in the material culture of Troy VII b2 where the European migrants had settled.

This migration wave is mainly established on the basis of archaeological finds.
A very similar, almost identical pottery from the sites in Lower Macedonian to the pottery from Troy VII b 2 with a characteristic knobbed pottery in gray-black coloring and smooth surface from the same period, could serve as an evidence for these statements. Their origin was searched in middle Europe and was connected to the pottery of Gava type in Hungary, while their movements were traced from the Balkans to Asia Minor.

Most probably there was a third stage of migrations of the Macedonians proved by the changes found out in the north-west Greece and Epirus; a complete stop of life in the settlements belonging to the Macedonians in Bubushti, Vergina and Pateli, a sudden fall of the number of inhabitants in Vitsa, and a vacuum of finds in the Ohrid region.
These changes are supposed to have happened about 800-700 bc.

After those migrations from the Balkans the existence of the Macedonian (aka Phrygian) state in Asia Minor is confirmed. The occupation of the east Mediterranean area is in fact a migration of the majority of this ethic community from one geographic area to another.
The Asia Minor group of the Macedonians population had created a state of their own which had a great historic and cultural importance for the development of the east Mediterranean, and particularly for the fake Hellenic civilization.
The material culture of Macedonians, for example, the pottery production, shows some connections with the Balkan area, while the tumuli burials are considered to be of a direct European influence.

The appearance of the Macedonian painted pottery was certainly influenced by the east Anatolian pottery in the Alisar IV style, with elements of the flora and fauna, and the old Anatolian tradition." but also by the geometric matt-painted pottery from the Balkan Macedonian areas as a western element.

The Macedonian geometric painted pottery, which has a basic decoration from the both styles, 11 appears in the 8th century B.C. corresponding the last wave of the migrations of the Macedonians from the Balkans.
The third wave is also very well documented from an archaeological point of view, while the decline of the number of population and the desertion of the sites in south-west part of the Central Balkans is not explained until now.
Thus, we suppose that our theory corresponds to the last movements of the Macedonians from the Balkans to Asia Minor.
(The fact that in this period the ethnic community of the Macedonians occupies only enclaves scattered in a wider geographic areas on the Balkans, most probably because the majority of them had moved away from these areas, confirms our theory).


No sign of the postulated Indo-European (Aryan) invasion (1200 B.C.) is detected by genetic analysis.
There was not "Trojan War". No historical city of Troy existed anywhere.

The Greek Dark Age
There were not "Greek Dark Ages". It is incredible that a people as "intelligent as the Greeks" should have forgotten how to read and write once they had learned how to do so.

Near East

Central Asia

South Asia

Bronze Age

In the area of the Central Balkans, especially in its south-west part, where a latter concentration of the Macedonians (aka Brigians) is supposed, there is continuity in tumuli burials from the Early Bronze Age up to the Iron Age II. 
This continuity was not essentially disturbed by the latter settling, which shows that the populations settled in the Early Bronze Age continued to live in this area during the whole 2nd and in the beginning of the 1st millennium bc.

According to the burial types and the specific features of the material culture some cultural groups, later to become ethnic groups, may be defined.
Certain proto-populations occupying distinct areas of the Balkans could be distinguished on the territories of the cultural groups.

Towards the end of the Late Bronze Age and in the beginning of the Iron Age I, a specific matt geometric painted pottery, made rather according to the model from the mid Helladic traditions than to the Mycenaean pottery, appeared in the south-western part of the Central Balkans.
This pottery, along with the characteristic metal production of weapons and jewelry, especially the pins decorated in a manner similar to the pottery, became an essential characteristic of the region inhabited by the Macedonians (aka Brigians).

The earliest tin bronze artifacts in Eurasia were found in Serbia (Balkan) 6500 ya. (Radivojević 2013)


The Bell Beaker Complex (2750 bc) rapidly spread throughout large part of Europe and northern Africa, where they overlapped geographically with the Corded Ware Complex.
Skeletons from Bell Beaker and Corded Ware sites are similar to tall and robust Mesolithic populations, rather than the shorter-limbed, more gracile types found at many sites of the early European Neolithic. (Vancata 2001, Gallagher 2009)

Escacena postulated a common origin for Egyptian predynastic El-Badari culture and Iberian cultures (dating to about 2000 b.c.), suggesting that Saharan's emigrated to both Iberia and the Nile Valley because of increasing aridity. 
The Egyptians Pyramids were not built by slaves; the ancient Egyptians were capable for achievements in engineering and everything.

Climate change has been suggested as a possible cause for the decline of urban centers of the Indus Civilization ∼4000 yr ago. (Dixit 2014)

About 1250 bc, there was a Bronze Age war (southern Europeans and others vs Poland's and Scandinavians) in northern Germany. (Curry 2016)


The Late Bronze Age collapse
Climate change may have driven the collapse of Eastern Mediterranean civilizations around 1300 – 1200 BC. (Kaniewski 2013)
The Phoenician cities were untouched by the incursions of the “Sea Peoples” c. 1200 BC, which caused the collapse of the Mycenean and Hittite empires and the decline of Egypt, Assyria, Syria (Boileauau 2010)


Near East

Central Asia

South Asia


Copper Age

Indeed, in recent years, Old European artifacts were even discovered in Southeastern France, suggesting that the civilization of Old Europe travelled not merely to the East, but also to the West. 
Perhaps we should even consider them to be at the origin of the megalithic civilizations? But no-one, it seems, has dared to topple that stone yet.

In the Central Balkans the Eneolithic sites, having no contacts with the last wave of the settling of the Indo-Europeans, correspond to the Anatolian chronology.


Near East

Central Asia

South Asia


Agriculture was invented in the Middle East, but many researchers found it hard to believe that people from that part of the world would have embarked on an endless march across the Bosporus and into the north.


There was war between Sub-Saharans–the ancestors of modern Black Africans and ancestors of the North African/Levantine/European people, 13 kya. link

Sudden climate change might have forced several Neolithic cultures/people to shift toward the border of present-day Sudan and Egypt, near Lake Nubia.
A recent archaeological study reveals that during a desiccation period in North Africa, while the eastern Sahara was depopulated, a refugium existed on the border of present-day Sudan and Egypt, near Lake Nubia, until the onset of a humid phase around 8500 bc.

The most ancient osteological evidence for thalassemia comes from the Near East, from a skeleton excavated at the now submerged village of Atlit Yam off the coast of Israel, dating to about 10 kya. (Hershkovitz 1991)

Recent excavations in Anatolia show, is the fact that the ancient farmers did not leave their core region for almost 2 ky.
At around 7000 BC, a mass migration of farmers began from the Middle East to Europe. In 2,500 years, agriculture spread uniformly from Greece to the British Isles.
These ancient farmers brought along domesticated cattle and pigs.

Mesolithic hunter-gatherers were present in Macedonia region just before the first appearance of Neolithic pottery.
Mesolithic foragers in the Balkans consumed domesticated plant foods already by ∼6600 cal. BC, if not earlier. (Cristiani 2016)

It seems that the Neolithic (6500 bc) populations in Tell Qarassa, Tell Qaramel, in Syria; Akçalar, Aktopraklık, in Turkey were massacred.

Genetic data from ancient human remains found in Europe have shown that the most of early Neolithic farmers were not descended from the hunter-gatherers who lived there before.

A climatic crisis struck farmers around 6200 bc. This event had far-reaching consequences. It seems to have hit Balkan foragers as well as the Near Eastern farmers.
Then there was the new wave of farmers after 6200 bc.

Past research had detected milk residues in other sites in northwestern Anatolia about 8 kya and in Libya nearly 7 kya.

Modern Europeans are not direct descendants of the Neolithic farmers.


DNA extracted from the remains of post-LGM Mesolithic individuals reveals that they had genetically little in common with Paleolithic and today European populations. 

Modern Europeans are not direct descendants of the Mesolithic hunter-gatherers.



The Twilight Zone

Life on Earth began (how?) more than 3 billion years ago.
But, why new life (forms) were not formed 6 seconds, 3 months, 500 years etc later?

In order for life to have gotten started, there must have been a genetic molecule; something like DNA or RNA, capable of passing along blueprints for making proteins.
Not even a single protein inside the cell can form spontaneously and by chance, let alone entire genes.

The RNA World hypothesis got a big boost in 2009.

The study of human evolution has always been messy, and everyday findings just make it all the messier.

the 48 chromosomes in apes gradually declined to 46; so human beings were the result.

Lower Paleolithic
(c. 3.3 Ma – 300 ka)
Oldowan (2.6–1.7 Ma)
Riwat (1.9–0.045 Ma)
Madrasian Culture (1.5 Ma)
Soanian (0.5–0.13 Ma)
Acheulean (1.8–0.1 Ma)
Clactonian (0.3–0.2 Ma)
Middle Paleolithic
(300–45 ka)
Mousterian (150–40 ka)
Micoquien (130–70 ka) The human remains in China can be bracketed to 116–106 ka. (Cai 2016)
Aterian (82 ka)

Indeed, all found fossils are of complete humans, animals and plants, not works in progress "under construction".

Historic genomics

History is a largely subjective area

Sub Saharan origin of Greeks

The Florentines, Venetians, Catalans etc. ruled over Macedonians and Romani in Athens and south of today Greece; they had looked into the faces of the local population.
Indeed, they began to write about ethno genesis of the Romei people.

Since descendants of the Africans themselves were not Nordic looking at all, but swarthy and black haired, they started their stories with Ethiopia. If Valla (aka Herodotus) found it still black after so much crossbreeding, it must have been basic black at the start.

Medieval Romani had no racial neurosis about it. They were a very notable people

Around 1400 ad Vergerius, a teacher at Florence (although he was not a geneticist) wrote that there was a "old racial rivalry between the Africans and Macedonians". He becomes known as Arrianus.

The Y dna hg M78 is found at high frequencies in the sub-Saharan, Bantu-speaking populations, Romani people, so called Greeks and Shqiptars (aa Albanians); it was almost absent in blond Nordic populations.

A much-debated topic is whether the earliest West, Sub Saharan Africans and Levantines of Greece arrived via terrestrial or maritime colonization routes.
Hundred year of research have been wasted trying to find the presence of the ancient Africans in Balkan, Anatolia, Dan. But they didn't exist; they were invented by Renaissance authors.

Greeks themselves were not Nordic looking at all, but swarthy and black haired.
The Nazi race "scientists" tried to attribute this miracle to the Dorian "Nordic" invasion, since Greeks speak an Arian language. They attributed the late dullness of Greeks to mixing with Blacks.
But the picture is much more complicated.

The Greeks themselves thought they came from upper Egypt - Ethiopia. The idea that they should have arrived from the cold North never passed by their minds, as they considered the Northern peoples savage Barbarians.

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Shqiptar Ghegs aka Albanians fake Illirians

The territory that today is inhabited by actual Albanian-speaking individuals has been populated since the Paleolithic Age.
Ancient DNA from the Europe showed without doubt that the so called Greeks and Shqiptars were not descended from Old Europeans. The Old Europeans overwhelmingly carried Y DNA haplogroups…..

Albanian speaking people can be divided into several major groups; Albanised Macedonians, the Ghegs and the Tosks (in the Balkan), Albanians in Greece, Arbereshe in Italy; according to the Albanian dialect they speak.

Albanised Macedonians 
A recent study on blood groups distributions, suggested that Albanians may be indeed quite different from other Balkan populations. (Susanne 1996)

Haplogroup I have been found very rarely in Shqiptars populations and populations outside the European continent.

Origin of the Shqiptars
The achieved results indicated that the Shqiptar population had lived in socially isolated groups.
It is possible to reveal their origin by following their genetic structure.

Genetically speaking, Shqiptars aka Albanians belong to the Y dna hg`s E, J and R1b.

We now turn to discuss possible causes and implications of these results.

It is found that other present-day Albanians may in part come from primitive Saharan stock. (Go´mez-Casado 2000)
The E-M78 people were fathered by Sudanese (Nuba and Masalit).

Haplogroup J2-M102 was observed at substantial frequencies in all Balkan ASP groups.
The J2-M12 Shqiptars were fathered by Iranians. (Broushaki 2016)


Ethnogenesis of the Shqiptars
During ancient times, various invasions and waves of immigrations occurred in the territories actually inhabited by Albanians.
Bear in the mind that their facial parameters show a Dagestan, Iranian, Kurdish, Arab, North African etc admixture.

The Y dna hg M78 is found at high frequencies in the sub-Saharan, Bantu-speaking populations, Romani people, so called Greeks and Shqiptars (aka Albanians); it was almost absent in blond Nordic populations.

V13...Gheg Macedonia 8.2 kya....Albanians 5.0 kya; Estonians

J2b Ancient DNA links Shqiptars (aka Albanians) to Caucasus populations.....Albanians 4.0 kya;  Gheg Macedonia 2.1 kya ...Cochin Jews....13–22 generations (470–730 years) ago..

Gheg Shqiptars in R. of Macedonia (71.2 %) are not part of lactose tolerant population that spread with dairy farming or peoples adopting pastoralism. (Saiti 2012)

J1 Armenians

Albanian people have a risk to give birth to children with CF higher than the rest of Europeans. ( Festini 2008)

Y Hgs E-M78 and R1b were associated with the spread of sickle cell disease. (Bereir 2007, Haber 2011) Legendary pharaoh Tutankhamen was probably killed by the genetic blood disorder sickle cell disease.
b-thallasemia and sickle cell anemia were found in about 7-8% in Albanians that are located in the provinces along the Adriatic and Ionian coasts (Babameto-Laku 2011); indeed, they don’t have maritime etymology.

Avars settlements have been found in Albania.

The Shqiptar (aka Albanian) source populations were at least in part already differentiated before their migration to Macedonian Peninsula and Italy.

Albanian people can be divided into two major groups, the Ghegs (in the North) and the Tosks (in the South), according to the Albanian dialect they speak. The Tosks fell well within the Balkan cluster, whereas the Gheg samples took an outlier position. (Ferri 2010)

Compared to all European nations, Shqiptars Ghegs (aka Albanians), are closest relatives to North African populations. (Ferri 2010)

Because there are lots of Albanised Macedonians that speak Shqiptar language, it is difficult to assume that there was a great Shqiptar (Albanian, Arbanas, Arnaut) ethnic core of several centuries ago.

The Albanian-speaking individuals (from Albania and Kosovo) descended from ~200 ancestors from 0-500 y ago; the high degree of shared common ancestry (inbreeding) among Albanian speakers might be because most of these originated from a small village rather than uniformly across Albania and Kosovo. (Ralph 2012)

Arbëreshë Shqiptars 
The Arbereshe represent an ideal link between Shqiptar Ghegs in Italy and Shqiptar Ghegs from Balkans.
The Y dna frequency and STR variation observed in Arbëreshë indicate that if the first Arbëreshë colonists came from Albania, they did not bring these Hg`s from Shqiptars.

I ...they were fathered by Italians.

The heritage of Ottoman Islam in the Macedonian Peninsula
Polish archaeologists discovered a fourteenth-century Turkish bath-hammam in northwestern (Gheg part of) Albania. link
According to the history, Ottoman rule in Albania began after the Battle of Savra in 1385; The last towns captured by the Ottomans were Shkodër in 1479 and Durrës in 1501.

Subsequent migrations of Muslim populations followed; the Roma minority first arrived to Albania around the 14th c. ad from present Bulgaria (Ferri 2010); in particular (starting from) the 15th century saw movement of (in several waves) Muslims to Balkan.

Albanian coast was strategically important place for Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire was Islamic in religion. Albanian ports were important places; from where some new crusaders could be penetrate into Islamic State.


Shqiptars Ghegs in Kosovo
Shqiptars Ghegs in Macedonia
Shqiptars Tosks in Albania
Arbëreshë Shqiptars in Italy

with Cochin Jews
Romani people


with Armenians; Ethiopians

Albania may have been colonized by diffusion of groups in the North-South direction, and from Macedonia in the East, over a pre-existing Illiryan population. (Mikerezi 2013)
So, Turks needed new guardians-obviously, new tribe (originating from Ottoman Empire) was brought by Turks; it`s seems that after 1528 ad Shqiptar Tosks were imported in south, Shqiptar Ghegs were imported in north, mountains part of Albania.

Albanian mtDNA sequences show a clear unimodal mismatch distribution, typical of populations having gone through a recent expansion. (Belledi 2000)
There was/is enormous population growth (it`s starting 2-4 centuries ago) in Albanian speaking population in Balkans.

The first "undisputed mention of Albanians" in the historical record is during the Ottoman Empire. They were known as Arnauts (ارناود); old term used mainly from Turks.
The Arnauts (Shqiptars) imported to the Albania were classified as “loyal allies” of the Turks; the expansion of the Arnauts occurs only in the last 250 years, with the great help of the Turkish state.

The newly arriving Gheg and Tosk Shqiptars small groups did not enter an unpopulated space.
Even Napoleon Bonaparte writes about two different entities: The Albanians and Arnauts. (Gihon 1832)

Gheg Shqiptars (aka Albanians) seem to be some of the most inbred peoples in Europe; looking at their genomes, they have the highest frequencies of within-country “blocks of ibd” (identity by descent) as compared to other Europeans which suggests that they are been inbreeding for a long time, too. (Ralph 2012)

Shqiptars are the legatees of long years of inbreeding, lack of education and foreign-particularly Turkish occupation. (Lucas 2007) ; there are three main inbreed clusters, one toward the North, the second in Central Albania, and the third in the South. (Mikerezi 2013)

Since the ban on marrying relations within the fis only applies to paternal relations, it could very well be that Gheg Shqiptars (aka Albanians) frequently marry maternal relatives-close or distant maternal cousins.
Bear in mind that in Gheg Shqiptar (aka Albanian) language little sister=motërz and sister=motër.

Shqiptar (aka albanian) Language
The Shqiptar (aka Albanian) language is a not separate branch of the Indo-European language tree.
Albanians are clearly different from all other Indo-Europeans linguistically. (Belledi 2000)

Frequencies of mtDNA Haplogroups in Macedonians

L0 L1–6
L1 L2 L4 L5 L6

M and N









H and V

J and T