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Saturday, September 28, 2013

Population genetic relationships between Mediterranean populations determined by gene distribution and a historic perspective

Gene flow from Africa to Europe is not merely reflected on the Y and X chromosomes, but corresponds to much broadest effects.



Approximately 20-13 kya, human populations across Eurasia experienced the Last Ice Age. 



Copper age 

Bronze age 

Iron age 

Gauls never arrived in Macedonia or Balkan.

Romans don’t left genetic traces in Macedonia, nor in the Middle East.

Early medieval 

There is no scientific evidence that Macedonia come under the control of the Bulgarians, Romans, Latin Crusaders, Serbs.

Population dynamics during and after Muslim (Turkish) invasion of the Balkans, substantially influenced the population structure of Ethnic Macedonia (in areas where is now Albania, Kosovo, Greece).

Macedonian Language

Partition of Macedonia

Macedonia under the Ottoman Empire

Gene flow from Africa to Europe is not merely reflected on the Y and X chromosomes, but corresponds to much broadest effects.

Medieval time

The Dark Ages

The Fall of the Western Roman Empire
One of the great questions of Western history, if not the great question, is "Why did Rome fall?"
It might be better to ask, "Did Rome fall?"

Migration Period

Bulgars...Tatars may be descendants of ancient Bulgars.
Most of Steppe people have disappeared relatively rapidly from the historical stage and the Balkan. 

The phantom time (614–911 ad) vs genetics

 the Moors (consisting of Arabs and Berbers) invaded Europe via Gibraltar (conquering Hispania—the Iberian Peninsula—from the Visigothic Kingdom in 711), before being halted.

During the Khazar–Arab Wars, the Khazars stopped the Arab expansion into Europe across the Caucasus (7th and 8th centuries).
Arab armies allegedly attempted to invade southeast Europe via Asia Minor during the late seventh and early eighth centuries, but were defeated at the siege of Constantinople (717–718) .

The Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin (~895 ad)...
The Norse expansion had a significant demographic effect over Europe (203).

The Muslims  conquered most of Sicily from the Christians by 902.

The Great Schism

Romani people
Romani people are known to have reached the Roman (aka fake Byzantine) Empire (modern day Turkey and Greece) by the tenth century (Fraser 1992). 
Geneticists find evidence for a Romani genetic lineage in England long before their recorded arrival there.

The Renaissance


More than 4,700 archaeological sites have been identified on the archaeological soil of Republic of Macedonia. None of these archaeological sites can be connected to the alleged arrival of medieval Slavs.

Ancient dna and so called Slavs
As more and more results of ancient DNA extracted from pre Neolithic skeletons were published, it became apparent that their y dna and mtdna types were quite different from those of modern Europeans and Steppe People.

Eneolithic and Bronze Age kurgan groups from Eastern Europe had dark skin. (Wilde 2014)

Ethnogenesis of the so called Slavs
Macedonians belong to the ‘‘older’’ Mediterranean substratum, like Lebanese, Turks (Anatolians), Armenians and Iranians.
Pre Neolithic Europeans do not belong to the ‘‘older’’ Mediterranean substratum.
Modern Europeans belong to the ‘‘older’’ Mediterranean substratum.
We now turn to discuss possible causes and implications of these results.

Prehistoric eastern Europeans were the recipients of multiple migrations from the East in prehistory that had not been previously detected and/or timed on the basis of modern Y dna and mtDNA data.

Geneticists have found that modern Europeans descend (largely) as the neighbors of the Fulani people, not from the non-milk drinkers who preceded them.

Eastern Europe individuals have a comparatively large proportion of ancestry drawn from a relatively small population that expanded over a large geographic area, ancestry which we date to 1-2 kya. (Ralph 2012)

Genetic relationships between today Macedonians and so called Slavs
Modern science provides limited genetic link between Macedonians and so called Eastern Slavs. Both Macedonians and so called Eastern Slavs have much more complex genetic population history than the traditional tree-based linguistic (or fake historic) model would suggest.

Macedonia in the Roman times

People originating from the Hungarian Basin and the Southern Mediterranean were found in the late Roman (cemetery) army at Winchester, southern England. (Eckardt 2009)

Macedonistic time

The literary tradition considered the Macedonians (aka Phrygians) as the oldest population in the world.
The Macedonians entered the history of the Hellenic culture and civilization also as predecessors and inventors of many skills.
The metal production and the beginning of coinage in Asia Minor are also connected to the Macedonians.
Although the Hellenes attributed all the inventions of the ancient world to them, the Macedonians, tended to enter the Hellenic cultural sphere.

Anyhow, dispersed in the mayor parts of the Mediterranean, the Balkans, Asia Minor and Italy, the Macedonians (aka Brigians) have left many traces of their existence from the Early Bronze Age to the classical period, which could not be avoided.

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Iron age

1200 BC

On the basis of the conclusions of a certain number of archaeologists, historians and linguists, this should be the first wave of the migrations of the Macedonians (aka Brigians) toward Asia Minor, which, unfortunately is not documented in the archaeological researches.

The second wave of migrations of the Macedonians (aka Brigians) is supposed in the period after the alleged Trojan war, when a considerable number of populations from Southeast Europe, settled in Asia Minor.
In this stage of migration the Macedonians were most probably not so numerous, as they did not influence the changes in the material culture of Troy VII b2 where the European migrants had settled.

This migration wave is mainly established on the basis of archaeological finds.
A very similar, almost identical pottery from the sites in Lower Macedonian to the pottery from Troy VII b 2 with a characteristic knobbed pottery in gray-black coloring and smooth surface from the same period, could serve as an evidence for these statements. Their origin was searched in middle Europe and was connected to the pottery of Gava type in Hungary, while their movements were traced from the Balkans to Asia Minor.

Most probably there was a third stage of migrations of the Macedonians proved by the changes found out in the north-west Greece and Epirus; a complete stop of life in the settlements belonging to the Macedonians in Bubushti, Vergina and Pateli, a sudden fall of the number of inhabitants in Vitsa, and a vacuum of finds in the Ohrid region.
These changes are supposed to have happened about 800-700 bc.

After those migrations from the Balkans the existence of the Macedonian (aka Phrygian) state in Asia Minor is confirmed. The occupation of the east Mediterranean area is in fact a migration of the majority of this ethic community from one geographic area to another.
The Asia Minor group of the Macedonians population had created a state of their own which had a great historic and cultural importance for the development of the east Mediterranean, and particularly for the fake Hellenic civilization.
The material culture of Macedonians, for example, the pottery production, shows some connections with the Balkan area, while the tumuli burials are considered to be of a direct European influence.

The appearance of the Macedonian painted pottery was certainly influenced by the east Anatolian pottery in the Alisar IV style, with elements of the flora and fauna, and the old Anatolian tradition." but also by the geometric matt-painted pottery from the Balkan Macedonian areas as a western element.

The Macedonian geometric painted pottery, which has a basic decoration from the both styles, 11 appears in the 8th century B.C. corresponding the last wave of the migrations of the Macedonians from the Balkans.
The third wave is also very well documented from an archaeological point of view, while the decline of the number of population and the desertion of the sites in south-west part of the Central Balkans is not explained until now.
Thus, we suppose that our theory corresponds to the last movements of the Macedonians from the Balkans to Asia Minor.
(The fact that in this period the ethnic community of the Macedonians occupies only enclaves scattered in a wider geographic areas on the Balkans, most probably because the majority of them had moved away from these areas, confirms our theory).


No sign of the postulated Indo-European (Aryan) invasion (1200 B.C.) is detected by genetic analysis.
There was not "Trojan War". No historical city of Troy existed anywhere.

The Greek Dark Age
There were not "Greek Dark Ages". It is incredible that a people as "intelligent as the Greeks" should have forgotten how to read and write once they had learned how to do so.

Near East

Central Asia

South Asia

Bronze Age

3300 BC

In the area of the Central Balkans, especially in its south-west part, where a latter concentration of the Macedonians (aka Brigians) is supposed, there is continuity in tumuli burials from the Early Bronze Age up to the Iron Age II. 
This continuity was not essentially disturbed by the latter settling, which shows that the populations settled in the Early Bronze Age continued to live in this area during the whole 2nd and in the beginning of the 1st millennium bc.

According to the burial types and the specific features of the material culture some cultural groups, later to become ethnic groups, may be defined.
Certain proto-populations occupying distinct areas of the Balkans could be distinguished on the territories of the cultural groups.

Towards the end of the Late Bronze Age and in the beginning of the Iron Age I, a specific matt geometric painted pottery, made rather according to the model from the mid Helladic traditions than to the Mycenaean pottery, appeared in the south-western part of the Central Balkans.
This pottery, along with the characteristic metal production of weapons and jewelry, especially the pins decorated in a manner similar to the pottery, became an essential characteristic of the region inhabited by the Macedonians (aka Brigians).

The earliest tin bronze artifacts in Eurasia were found in Serbia (Balkan) 6500 ya. (Radivojević 2013)


The Bell Beaker Complex (2750 bc) rapidly spread throughout large part of Europe and northern Africa, where they overlapped geographically with the Corded Ware Complex.
Skeletons from Bell Beaker and Corded Ware sites are similar to tall and robust Mesolithic populations, rather than the shorter-limbed, more gracile types found at many sites of the early European Neolithic. (Vancata 2001, Gallagher 2009)

Escacena postulated a common origin for Egyptian predynastic El-Badari culture and Iberian cultures (dating to about 2000 b.c.), suggesting that Saharan's emigrated to both Iberia and the Nile Valley because of increasing aridity. 
The Egyptians Pyramids were not built by slaves; the ancient Egyptians were capable for achievements in engineering and everything.

Climate change has been suggested as a possible cause for the decline of urban centers of the Indus Civilization ∼4000 yr ago. (Dixit 2014)

About 1250 bc, there was a Bronze Age war (southern Europeans and others vs Poland's and Scandinavians) in northern Germany. (Curry 2016)


The Late Bronze Age collapse
Climate change may have driven the collapse of Eastern Mediterranean civilizations around 1300 – 1200 BC. (Kaniewski 2013)
The Phoenician cities were untouched by the incursions of the “Sea Peoples” c. 1200 BC, which caused the collapse of the Mycenean and Hittite empires and the decline of Egypt, Assyria, Syria (Boileauau 2010)


Near East

Central Asia

South Asia


Copper Age

5000 BC

Indeed, in recent years, Old European artifacts were even discovered in Southeastern France, suggesting that the civilization of Old Europe traveled not merely to the East, but also to the West. 
Perhaps we should even consider them to be at the origin of the megalithic civilizations?
But no-one, it seems, has dared to topple that stone yet.

In the Central Balkans the Eneolithic sites, having no contacts with the last wave of the settling of the Indo-Europeans, correspond to the Anatolian chronology.

milk drinkers


There was war between Sub-Saharans–the ancestors of modern Black Africans and ancestors of the North African/Levantine/European people, 13 kya. link
Tell Aswad
Nevalı Çori

Göbekli Tepe

The most ancient osteological evidence for thalassemia comes from the Near East, from a skeleton excavated at the now submerged village of Atlit Yam off the coast of Israel, dating to about 10 kya. (Hershkovitz 1991)

Recent excavations in Anatolia show, is the fact that the ancient farmers did not leave their core region for almost 2 ky.

At around 7000 bc, a mass migration of farmers began from the Middle East to Europe. 
Mesolithic foragers in the Balkans consumed domesticated plant foods already by ∼6600 cal. bc, if not earlier. (Cristiani 2016)
Mesolithic hunter-gatherers were present in Macedonia region just before the first appearance of Neolithic pottery.

A climatic crisis struck farmers around 6200 bc. This event had far-reaching consequences. It seems to have hit Balkan foragers as well as the Near Eastern farmers.
It seems that the Neolithic (6500 bc) populations in Tell Qarassa, Tell Qaramel, in Syria; Akçalar, Aktopraklık, in Turkey were massacred.
Then there was the new wave of farmers after 6200 bc.

Sudden climate change might have forced several Neolithic cultures/people to shift toward the border of present-day Sudan and Egypt, near Lake Nubia.
A recent archaeological study reveals that during a desiccation period in North Africa, while the eastern Sahara was depopulated, a refugium existed on the border of present-day Sudan and Egypt, near Lake Nubia, until the onset of a humid phase around 8500 bc.

Past research had detected milk residues in other sites in northwestern Anatolia about 8 kya and in Libya nearly 7 kya.

In 2.5 ky , agriculture spread uniformly from Greece to the British Isles.

Genetic data from ancient human remains found in Europe have shown that the most of Modern Europeans were not descended from the hunter-gatherers, nor from Neolithic farmers who lived there before.


20000 bc

10000 bc

DNA extracted from the remains of post-LGM Mesolithic individuals reveals that they had genetically little in common with Paleolithic and today European populations. 

Modern Europeans are not direct descendants of the Mesolithic hunter-gatherers.



The Twilight Zone

Life on Earth began (how?) more than 3 billion years ago.
But, why new life (forms) were not formed 6 seconds, 3 months, 500 years etc later?

In order for life to have gotten started, there must have been a genetic molecule; something like DNA or RNA, capable of passing along blueprints for making proteins.
Not even a single protein inside the cell can form spontaneously and by chance, let alone entire genes.

The RNA World hypothesis got a big boost in 2009.

The study of human evolution has always been messy, and everyday findings just make it all the messier.

the 48 chromosomes in apes gradually declined to 46; so human beings were the result.

Lower Paleolithic
(c. 3.3 Ma – 300 ka)
Oldowan (2.6–1.7 Ma)
Riwat (1.9–0.045 Ma)
Madrasian Culture (1.5 Ma)
Soanian (0.5–0.13 Ma)
Acheulean (1.8–0.1 Ma)
Clactonian (0.3–0.2 Ma)
Middle Paleolithic
(300–45 ka)
Mousterian (150–40 ka)
Micoquien (130–70 ka) The human remains in China can be bracketed to 116–106 ka. (Cai 2016)
Aterian (82 ka)

Indeed, all found fossils are of complete humans, animals and plants, not works in progress "under construction".

Historic genomics

Anemia predates pre-human species.
There are three sources of anemia in any population: parasites, genes, and diet.

Malaria is an ancient disease caused by the Plasmodium organism. Evidence shows that P. falciparum causing malignant tertian malaria originated in Central Africa 165 million years ago and migrated towards the Mediterranean at the end of the last Ice Age. P. vivax and P. malariae causing more benign malaria probably originated in South-East Asia.
....malaria only attacked these populations at a relatively recent date in terms of biological evolution, i. e. in the last few centuries. (Unesco

Sickle cell anemia
You must inherit the defective gene from both parents to develop sickle cell anemia.  link

Geneticists founds that Y Hg E, J and R1b were associated with the spread of sickle cell disease.

This constitutes direct evidence for gene flow linked to human migration from central Africa to Mediterranean Europe via Greece in historical times. (Salares 2004)

Beta thalassemia
You must inherit the defective gene from both parents to develop thalassemia major. Risk factors for thalassemia include: Asian, Chinese, Mediterranean, or African American ethnicity. 

The most ancient osteological evidence for thalassemia comes from the Near East, Israel, dating to about 10,000 years ago. 


Coalescent analyses indicate that MTBC (tuberculosis) emerged about 70,000 ya in Africa accompanied migrations of anatomically modern humans out of Africa and expanded with a first migration along the Indian Ocean around 65,000 years ago, followed by second wave into Eurasia around 40,000 years ago. 
Calculation of the effective population sizes revealed a strong correlation between Mtb and human mtDNAs, with both measures exhibiting an increase around 8-10,000 years ago.

Homo sapiens were originally unable to digest raw milk. Generally, the human body only produces an enzyme that can break down lactose in the small intestine during the first few years of life.

Evidence of milking first appears around the Sea of Marmara c. 6500–5000 BC.

A clue that it occurred first among R1b-dominant people is provided by its appearance among the Fulani, a Chadic-speaking tribe of pastoralists.

Thus, Basques cannot be considered as a genetic outliers under a general genome scope and interpretations on their origin must to be revised.

History is a largely subjective area

Sub Saharan origin of Greeks

The territory that is now Greece has several ethnic groups and major religions are present.
It is now necessary to rely on other (non historical) sources, such as genetics, archaeology, linguistics, etc, to establish a more objective history of Balkan and particularly ancient (and today) Greece.

Analyses of ancient DNA, without doubts, show that Balkan (and Europe) was populated by people that give rise to most of today Macedonians.
So called Greeks are not related to the Macedonians in R of Macedonia, nor to the Macedonians in Aegean part of Macedonia...

The three main sources of the “Greeks” paternal gene pool were identified as African, Levantine (031,034) and Asian (032).

Greek language


R-L23* haplogroup was introduced into the Greeks  6.9 kya ().

E-V13 haplogroup was introduced into the Greeks 4.8 kya ().

J-M241 haplogroup was introduced into the Greeks 2.9 kya ().

The coming of the African / Levantine unnamed tribes to Macedonian Peninsula part 1


Dark Age

In 168 BC and 146 BC the Roman Empire conquered Macedonia and Achaia (not Greece) respectively.

Roman Empire never was East, never was Byzantium empire. Byzantium is fabrication created by Bavarian Hieronymus Wolf (1562 ad) when Roman Empire was past; and was repeatedly used from then on by other western European writers.

The coming of the African / Levantine unnamed tribes to Macedonian Peninsula part 2

(Achaia) was a province during Ottoman times. For this reason it is also incorrect to say that “Greece” was occupied by the Turks for 400 years. There was no Greece to occupy

The concept of “Hellenism” was introduced in historiography by the German historian Droysen, 1877-78, and later was accepted by other authors such as Ferguson, 1911, Heuss, Launey, 1949, Beloch, 1927 and others.

The coming of the Turkish Orthodox Christians to Macedonian Peninsula part 3
Lacunar amnesia is the loss of memory about one specific event. Example: In areas where is now so called Greece, specific event was the population exchange between Turkey and so called Greece.
Orthodox Christians from the Black Sea, the Aegean and across Anatolia - who often didn't speak a word of the Greek language - were abruptly ordered to leave the lands in which their ancestors Turks had lived for hundreds of years and resettle in their “natural” homeland. (Klark 2007)

Shqiptar Ghegs aka Albanians fake Illirians

Albanian-speaking people in Balkans can be divided into two major groups:
-descendants of the Albanised, true Macedonians; 
-people brought by Ottoman Turks; the Ghegs (in the North) and the Tosks (in the South), according to the Shqip (aka Albanian) dialect they speak.

Analysis of ancient DNA has so far confirmed the claims that Shqiptars are not related to pre Ottoman period populations...

Genetically speaking, Shqiptars belong to the Y dna hg`s E, J and R1b.

Y-DNA haplogroup E would appear to have arisen in Africa. The most frequent haplogroup in Shqiptar males is E.

Y-DNA haplogroup J would evolved in the ancient Near East.

R1b-M343 is believed to have arisen in southwest Asia.


Gheg Shqiptars come from primitive Saharan stock 021.
E-V13 was introduced in Shqiptars Ghegs in R of Macedonia 8.2 kya.;

E-V13 was introduced in Albanians 5 kya; it was absent among Yamnaya herders, so Shqiptars are not their (the only possible modern) descendants, as is stated by 951, 952.

J-M241 was introduced in Albanians 4 kya;
J-M241 was introduced in Shqiptars Ghegs in R of Macedonia 2 kya; clearly postdates the Illirians.

Gheg Shqiptars in R. of Macedonia (71.2 %) are not part of lactose tolerant population that spread with dairy farming or peoples adopting pastoralism.
The Albanian R1b cluster is in fact very young....clearly postdates the Illirians.

Illyrians were coastal people, while Albanians are mountainous since they lack maritime vocabulary.

Avars settlements have been found in Albania.

Albanian people have a risk to give birth to children with CF higher than the rest of Europeans.

Bear in the mind that their facial parameters show a Dagestan, Iranian, Kurdish, Arab, North African etc admixture.

Shqiptar`s small village and Arbereshe
The Albanian-speaking individuals (from Albania and Kosovo) descended from ~200 ancestors from 0-500 ya; most of these originated from a small village rather than uniformly across Albania and Kosovo.
It`s seems that small Albanian-speaking village was located so far from Europe.

The Arbereshe represent an ideal link between Shqiptar Ghegs in Italy and Shqiptar Ghegs from Balkans.
It is not yet clear, how the most of the Arbereshe (that descended from 200–900 migrants) started moving from the small village in south of Albania (Toskeria) to Italy, 500 ya?

Arbereshe have interesting genetic structure.

Genetic evidence suggests that the Shqiptar source populations were at least in part already differentiated before their migrations to Macedonian Peninsula and Italy.

The Heritage of Ottoman Islam in the Balkans
Population dynamics after Muslim (Turkish) invasion of the Balkans, substantially influenced the population structure of Ethnic Macedonia in areas where is now R. Macedonia, Albania, Kosovo, Greece etc. (Albanian speaking areas)

When the Turks first entered Europe, Macedonia, there was no indigenous Shqiptar (Albanian) man, nor civilization or clash of cultures for the simple reason that Shqiptars did not have a presence in the European region.

Albanian coast was strategically important place for Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire was Islamic in religion. Albanian ports were important places; from where some new crusaders could be penetrate into Islamic State.

The first undisputed mention of Albanians in the historical record is during the Ottoman Empire. They were known as Arnauts (ارناود); old term used mainly from Turks.

The Albanais (in French) are first mentioned in 1612 ad, the word Albanians (in English) (both words means Mountaineers) is known from more recent times.

Genocide against Macedonians and Albanised Macedonians

Only a small percentage of the Y-DNA of Shqiptars; less than xx percent, originated outside of the Shqiptar Albania, presumably as converts.

Genetic evidence suggests that the Tosks fell well within the Balkan cluster, whereas the Ghegs are related to the North Africans.

Shqiptars are the legatees of long years of inbreeding, lack of education and foreign-particularly Turkish occupation. (Lucas 2007) ; there are three main inbreed clusters, one toward the North, the second in Central Albania, and the third in the South. (Mikerezi 2013)

The expansion of the Arnauts occurs only in the last 250 years, with the great help of the Turkish state.

Frequencies of mtDNA Haplogroups in Macedonians

Mitochondrial Eve (L)
Haplogroup L

L0 L1–6
L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6

Haplogroup M

Haplogroup N


Haplogroup R

Haplogroup U



Haplogroup R0
R0a1 and HV

Haplogroup HV


Haplogroup JT