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Saturday, September 28, 2013

Macedonians-Who They Are?

This page is dedicated to the Macedonian civilization.
Those people who are not Macedonians have problems to define what constitutes “Macedonia” presents something of an historical and political problem. We will try to answer all the obscure questions posed by those who aren't Macedonians and all those who have the wrong idea about us. We will try to answer all questions to be consistent research of modern science, of course there are other sources, such as "history" and the Bible, etc and slowly to form a mosaic called Macedonia and Macedonians.

The Balkan region includes human populations with high level of Y STR diversity and with a quite similar genetic structure. It is clear that the observed populations from Balkan do not have a pronounced differentiation of Y STR population structure, except Shqiptars (aka Albanians), so called Greeks populations which shows some of Y dna; HLA specificities.

What do we call a nation? – People who are of the same origin and who speak the same words and who live and make friends of each other, who have the same customs and songs and entertainment are what we call a nation, and the place where that people lives is called the people's country.
Thus the Macedonians also are a nation and the place which is theirs is called Macedonia. (Puleski 1817–1895 ad)

Territory where nation of the Ethnic Macedonians live coincides with the territory of the alleged kingdom of Macedon that was united by the Macedonian Kings, Philip II and Alexander III of Macedon.
Ethnic Macedonians live in Republic of Macedonia; the Aegean part of Macedonia (since 1913 ad part of Δημοκρατία της βόρειος Αιθιοπίας); Pirin part of Macedonia (since 1913 ad part of Bulgaria); across Albania;  Kosovo; Serbia.

Population genetic relationships between Macedonians and neighbor Balkan populations
According to the results of the comparative analysis, we can conclude that population differences between observed populations are expected.
Ethnic Macedonian population shows moderate Y dna, HLA etc differentiation versus other Balkan populations.

As the obtained results indicate, genetic distances recorded between Ethnic Macedonian population and ethnic Shqiptars (aka Albanians) (), so called Greeks () are relatively high.
These finding are curious considering that Albania, Kosovo, so called Greece and Republic Macedonia share a border.

Modern versus ancient DNA
Ancient DNA can tell us with certainty who is descended from whom.

Language is crucial to understanding Europe's past. Today languages can be spread by education and modern communications. In prehistory the only way languages could spread was by migration of people. So a complete language replacement in a particular region signifies a population change.

The historic basis of the present day Balkan conflict between Macedonians and their neighbors

Population genetic relationships between Mediterranean populations determined by gene distribution and a historic perspective

Gene flow from Africa to Europe is not merely reflected on the Y and X chromosomes, but corresponds to much broadest effects.



Approximately 20-13 kya, human populations across Eurasia experienced the Last Ice Age. 



Copper age 

Bronze age 

Iron age 

Gauls never arrived in Macedonia or Balkan.

Romans don’t left genetic traces in Macedonia, nor in the Middle East.

Early medieval 


Population dynamics during and after Muslim (Turkish) invasion of the Balkans, substantially influenced the population structure of Ethnic Macedonia (in areas where is now Albania, Kosovo, Greece).

Macedonian Language

Partition of Macedonia

Macedonia under the Ottoman Empire

Gene flow from Africa to Europe is not merely reflected on the Y and X chromosomes, but corresponds to much broadest effects.

Medieval time

The Dark Ages

The Fall of the Western Roman Empire
One of the great questions of Western history, if not the great question, is "Why did Rome fall?"
It might be better to ask, "Did Rome fall?"

Migration Period

Bulgars...Tatars may be descendants of ancient Bulgars.
Most of Steppe people have disappeared relatively rapidly from the historical stage and the Balkan. 

The phantom time (614–911 ad) vs genetics

 the Moors (consisting of Arabs and Berbers) invaded Europe via Gibraltar (conquering Hispania—the Iberian Peninsula—from the Visigothic Kingdom in 711), before being halted.

During the Khazar–Arab Wars, the Khazars stopped the Arab expansion into Europe across the Caucasus (7th and 8th centuries).
Arab armies allegedly attempted to invade southeast Europe via Asia Minor during the late seventh and early eighth centuries, but were defeated at the siege of Constantinople (717–718) .

The Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin (~895 ad)...
The Norse expansion had a significant demographic effect over Europe (203).

The Muslims  conquered most of Sicily from the Christians by 902.

The Great Schism

Romani people
Romani people are known to have reached the Roman (aka fake Byzantine) Empire (modern day Turkey and Greece) by the tenth century (Fraser 1992). 
Geneticists find evidence for a Romani genetic lineage in England long before their recorded arrival there.

The Renaissance


More than 4,700 archaeological sites have been identified on the archaeological soil of Republic of Macedonia. None of these archaeological sites can be connected to the alleged arrival of medieval Slavs.

Ancient dna and so called Slavs
As more and more results of ancient DNA extracted from pre Neolithic skeletons were published, it became apparent that their y dna and mtdna types were quite different from those of modern Europeans and Steppe People.

Eneolithic and Bronze Age kurgan groups from Eastern Europe had dark skin. (Wilde 2014)

Ethnogenesis of the so called Slavs
Macedonians belong to the ‘‘older’’ Mediterranean substratum, like Lebanese, Turks (Anatolians), Armenians and Iranians.
Pre Neolithic Europeans do not belong to the ‘‘older’’ Mediterranean substratum.
Modern Europeans belong to the ‘‘older’’ Mediterranean substratum.
We now turn to discuss possible causes and implications of these results.

Prehistoric eastern Europeans were the recipients of multiple migrations from the East in prehistory that had not been previously detected and/or timed on the basis of modern Y dna and mtDNA data.

Geneticists have found that modern Europeans descend (largely) as the neighbors of the Fulani people, not from the non-milk drinkers who preceded them.

Eastern Europe individuals have a comparatively large proportion of ancestry drawn from a relatively small population that expanded over a large geographic area, ancestry which we date to 1-2 kya. (Ralph 2012)

Genetic relationships between today Macedonians and so called Slavs
Modern science provides limited genetic link between Macedonians and so called Eastern Slavs. Both Macedonians and so called Eastern Slavs have much more complex genetic population history than the traditional tree-based linguistic (or fake historic) model would suggest.

Macedonia in the Roman times

People originating from the Hungarian Basin and the Southern Mediterranean were found in the late Roman (cemetery) army at Winchester, southern England. (Eckardt 2009)

Macedonistic time

The literary tradition considered the Macedonians (aka Phrygians) as the oldest population in the world.
The Macedonians entered the history of the Hellenic culture and civilization also as predecessors and inventors of many skills.
The metal production and the beginning of coinage in Asia Minor are also connected to the Macedonians.
Although the Hellenes attributed all the inventions of the ancient world to them, the Macedonians, tended to enter the Hellenic cultural sphere.

Anyhow, dispersed in the mayor parts of the Mediterranean, the Balkans, Asia Minor and Italy, the Macedonians (aka Brigians) have left many traces of their existence from the Early Bronze Age to the classical period, which could not be avoided.

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Iron age

On the basis of the conclusions of a certain number of archaeologists, historians and linguists, this should be the first wave of the migrations of the Macedonians (aka Brigians) toward Asia Minor, which, unfortunately is not documented in the archaeological researches.

The second wave of migrations of the Macedonians (aka Brigians) is supposed in the period after the alleged Trojan war, when a considerable number of populations from Southeast Europe, settled in Asia Minor.
In this stage of migration the Macedonians were most probably not so numerous, as they did not influence the changes in the material culture of Troy VII b2 where the European migrants had settled.

This migration wave is mainly established on the basis of archaeological finds.
A very similar, almost identical pottery from the sites in Lower Macedonian to the pottery from Troy VII b 2 with a characteristic knobbed pottery in gray-black coloring and smooth surface from the same period, could serve as an evidence for these statements. Their origin was searched in middle Europe and was connected to the pottery of Gava type in Hungary, while their movements were traced from the Balkans to Asia Minor.

Most probably there was a third stage of migrations of the Macedonians proved by the changes found out in the north-west Greece and Epirus; a complete stop of life in the settlements belonging to the Macedonians in Bubushti, Vergina and Pateli, a sudden fall of the number of inhabitants in Vitsa, and a vacuum of finds in the Ohrid region.
These changes are supposed to have happened about 800-700 bc.

After those migrations from the Balkans the existence of the Macedonian (aka Phrygian) state in Asia Minor is confirmed. The occupation of the east Mediterranean area is in fact a migration of the majority of this ethic community from one geographic area to another.
The Asia Minor group of the Macedonians population had created a state of their own which had a great historic and cultural importance for the development of the east Mediterranean, and particularly for the fake Hellenic civilization.
The material culture of Macedonians, for example, the pottery production, shows some connections with the Balkan area, while the tumuli burials are considered to be of a direct European influence.

The appearance of the Macedonian painted pottery was certainly influenced by the east Anatolian pottery in the Alisar IV style, with elements of the flora and fauna, and the old Anatolian tradition." but also by the geometric matt-painted pottery from the Balkan Macedonian areas as a western element.

The Macedonian geometric painted pottery, which has a basic decoration from the both styles, 11 appears in the 8th century B.C. corresponding the last wave of the migrations of the Macedonians from the Balkans.
The third wave is also very well documented from an archaeological point of view, while the decline of the number of population and the desertion of the sites in south-west part of the Central Balkans is not explained until now.
Thus, we suppose that our theory corresponds to the last movements of the Macedonians from the Balkans to Asia Minor.
(The fact that in this period the ethnic community of the Macedonians occupies only enclaves scattered in a wider geographic areas on the Balkans, most probably because the majority of them had moved away from these areas, confirms our theory).


No sign of the postulated Indo-European (Aryan) invasion (1200 B.C.) is detected by genetic analysis.
There was not "Trojan War". No historical city of Troy existed anywhere.

The Greek Dark Age
There were not "Greek Dark Ages". It is incredible that a people as "intelligent as the Greeks" should have forgotten how to read and write once they had learned how to do so.

Near East

Central Asia

South Asia

Bronze Age

In the area of the Central Balkans, especially in its south-west part, where a latter concentration of the Macedonians (aka Brigians) is supposed, there is continuity in tumuli burials from the Early Bronze Age up to the Iron Age II. 
This continuity was not essentially disturbed by the latter settling, which shows that the populations settled in the Early Bronze Age continued to live in this area during the whole 2nd and in the beginning of the 1st millennium bc.

According to the burial types and the specific features of the material culture some cultural groups, later to become ethnic groups, may be defined.
Certain proto-populations occupying distinct areas of the Balkans could be distinguished on the territories of the cultural groups.

Towards the end of the Late Bronze Age and in the beginning of the Iron Age I, a specific matt geometric painted pottery, made rather according to the model from the mid Helladic traditions than to the Mycenaean pottery, appeared in the south-western part of the Central Balkans.
This pottery, along with the characteristic metal production of weapons and jewelry, especially the pins decorated in a manner similar to the pottery, became an essential characteristic of the region inhabited by the Macedonians (aka Brigians).

The earliest tin bronze artifacts in Eurasia were found in Serbia (Balkan) 6500 ya. (Radivojević 2013)


The Bell Beaker Complex (2750 bc) rapidly spread throughout large part of Europe and northern Africa, where they overlapped geographically with the Corded Ware Complex.
Skeletons from Bell Beaker and Corded Ware sites are similar to tall and robust Mesolithic populations, rather than the shorter-limbed, more gracile types found at many sites of the early European Neolithic. (Vancata 2001, Gallagher 2009)

Escacena postulated a common origin for Egyptian predynastic El-Badari culture and Iberian cultures (dating to about 2000 b.c.), suggesting that Saharan's emigrated to both Iberia and the Nile Valley because of increasing aridity. 
The Egyptians Pyramids were not built by slaves; the ancient Egyptians were capable for achievements in engineering and everything.

Climate change has been suggested as a possible cause for the decline of urban centers of the Indus Civilization ∼4000 yr ago. (Dixit 2014)

About 1250 bc, there was a Bronze Age war (southern Europeans and others vs Poland's and Scandinavians) in northern Germany. (Curry 2016)


The Late Bronze Age collapse
Climate change may have driven the collapse of Eastern Mediterranean civilizations around 1300 – 1200 BC. (Kaniewski 2013)
The Phoenician cities were untouched by the incursions of the “Sea Peoples” c. 1200 BC, which caused the collapse of the Mycenean and Hittite empires and the decline of Egypt, Assyria, Syria (Boileauau 2010)


Near East

Central Asia

South Asia



Copper Age

Indeed, in recent years, Old European artifacts were even discovered in Southeastern France, suggesting that the civilization of Old Europe traveled not merely to the East, but also to the West. 
Perhaps we should even consider them to be at the origin of the megalithic civilizations?
But no-one, it seems, has dared to topple that stone yet.

In the Central Balkans the Eneolithic sites, having no contacts with the last wave of the settling of the Indo-Europeans, correspond to the Anatolian chronology.

milk drinkers


There was war between Sub-Saharans–the ancestors of modern Black Africans and ancestors of the North African/Levantine/European people, 13 kya. link
Tell Aswad
Nevalı Çori

Göbekli Tepe

The most ancient osteological evidence for thalassemia comes from the Near East, from a skeleton excavated at the now submerged village of Atlit Yam off the coast of Israel, dating to about 10 kya. (Hershkovitz 1991)

Recent excavations in Anatolia show, is the fact that the ancient farmers did not leave their core region for almost 2 ky.

At around 7000 bc, a mass migration of farmers began from the Middle East to Europe. 
Mesolithic foragers in the Balkans consumed domesticated plant foods already by ∼6600 cal. bc, if not earlier. (Cristiani 2016)
Mesolithic hunter-gatherers were present in Macedonia region just before the first appearance of Neolithic pottery.

A climatic crisis struck farmers around 6200 bc. This event had far-reaching consequences. It seems to have hit Balkan foragers as well as the Near Eastern farmers.
It seems that the Neolithic (6500 bc) populations in Tell Qarassa, Tell Qaramel, in Syria; Akçalar, Aktopraklık, in Turkey were massacred.
Then there was the new wave of farmers after 6200 bc.

Sudden climate change might have forced several Neolithic cultures/people to shift toward the border of present-day Sudan and Egypt, near Lake Nubia.
A recent archaeological study reveals that during a desiccation period in North Africa, while the eastern Sahara was depopulated, a refugium existed on the border of present-day Sudan and Egypt, near Lake Nubia, until the onset of a humid phase around 8500 bc.

Past research had detected milk residues in other sites in northwestern Anatolia about 8 kya and in Libya nearly 7 kya.

In 2.5 ky , agriculture spread uniformly from Greece to the British Isles.

Genetic data from ancient human remains found in Europe have shown that the most of Modern Europeans were not descended from the hunter-gatherers, nor from Neolithic farmers who lived there before.


DNA extracted from the remains of post-LGM Mesolithic individuals reveals that they had genetically little in common with Paleolithic and today European populations. 

Modern Europeans are not direct descendants of the Mesolithic hunter-gatherers.



The Twilight Zone

Life on Earth began (how?) more than 3 billion years ago.
But, why new life (forms) were not formed 6 seconds, 3 months, 500 years etc later?

In order for life to have gotten started, there must have been a genetic molecule; something like DNA or RNA, capable of passing along blueprints for making proteins.
Not even a single protein inside the cell can form spontaneously and by chance, let alone entire genes.

The RNA World hypothesis got a big boost in 2009.

The study of human evolution has always been messy, and everyday findings just make it all the messier.

the 48 chromosomes in apes gradually declined to 46; so human beings were the result.

Lower Paleolithic
(c. 3.3 Ma – 300 ka)
Oldowan (2.6–1.7 Ma)
Riwat (1.9–0.045 Ma)
Madrasian Culture (1.5 Ma)
Soanian (0.5–0.13 Ma)
Acheulean (1.8–0.1 Ma)
Clactonian (0.3–0.2 Ma)
Middle Paleolithic
(300–45 ka)
Mousterian (150–40 ka)
Micoquien (130–70 ka) The human remains in China can be bracketed to 116–106 ka. (Cai 2016)
Aterian (82 ka)

Indeed, all found fossils are of complete humans, animals and plants, not works in progress "under construction".

Historic genomics

Anemia predates pre-human species.
There are three sources of anemia in any population: parasites, genes, and diet.

Malaria is an ancient disease caused by the Plasmodium organism. Evidence shows that P. falciparum causing malignant tertian malaria originated in Central Africa 165 million years ago and migrated towards the Mediterranean at the end of the last Ice Age. P. vivax and P. malariae causing more benign malaria probably originated in South-East Asia.
....malaria only attacked these populations at a relatively recent date in terms of biological evolution, i. e. in the last few centuries. (Unesco

Sickle cell anemia
You must inherit the defective gene from both parents to develop sickle cell anemia.  link

Geneticists founds that Y Hg E, J and R1b were associated with the spread of sickle cell disease.

This constitutes direct evidence for gene flow linked to human migration from central Africa to Mediterranean Europe via Greece in historical times. (Salares 2004)

Beta thalassemia
You must inherit the defective gene from both parents to develop thalassemia major. Risk factors for thalassemia include: Asian, Chinese, Mediterranean, or African American ethnicity. 

The most ancient osteological evidence for thalassemia comes from the Near East, Israel, dating to about 10,000 years ago. 


Coalescent analyses indicate that MTBC (tuberculosis) emerged about 70,000 ya in Africa accompanied migrations of anatomically modern humans out of Africa and expanded with a first migration along the Indian Ocean around 65,000 years ago, followed by second wave into Eurasia around 40,000 years ago. 
Calculation of the effective population sizes revealed a strong correlation between Mtb and human mtDNAs, with both measures exhibiting an increase around 8-10,000 years ago.

Homo sapiens were originally unable to digest raw milk. Generally, the human body only produces an enzyme that can break down lactose in the small intestine during the first few years of life.

Evidence of milking first appears around the Sea of Marmara c. 6500–5000 BC.

A clue that it occurred first among R1b-dominant people is provided by its appearance among the Fulani, a Chadic-speaking tribe of pastoralists.

Thus, Basques cannot be considered as a genetic outliers under a general genome scope and interpretations on their origin must to be revised.

History is a largely subjective area

Sub Saharan origin of Greeks

Analyses of ancient DNA, without doubts, show that Balkan (and Europe) was populated by people that give rise to today Macedonians.

so we can conclude that the territory where is now Greece was inhabited by Macedonians. 
That is why the Balkan region includes human populations with high level of Y STR diversity and with a quite similar genetic structure.

The Hidden History of Western Civilization
Before the advent of advanced DNA research; it had been thought by medieval authors that Ρόμα and Ρόμα  largely descended from African / Levantine / Arabian populations.
If Valla (aka Herodotus) found it still black after so much crossbreeding, it must have been basic black at the start.
Then, some "modern era scientists" attributed the late dullness of so called Greeks to mixing with Blacks. But the picture is much more complicated.

Geneticist found that the so called Greeks are not related to the other European and Mediterranean populations.
In addition, sub-Saharan and other Africans were compared with all available Mediterranean groups in order to solve the question of the unique “Greek” genetic profile.

The three main sources of the “Greeks” paternal gene pool were identified as African, Levantine and Asian.


E-V13 haplogroup was introduced into the Greeks 4.8 kya ().

J-M241 haplogroup was introduced into the Greeks 2.9 kya ().

R-L23* haplogroup was introduced into the Greeks  6.9 kya ().

Civilization is not a white invention. Their civilization comes from Egypt and the Middle East by way of Balkan and Rome. The columns, the paper, the science, mathematics etc. all came straight out of Egypt.
“Democracy” in terms of freely elected representatives of a defined polity is seen among various African tribes.

Contrary to the claims of xxxx, a recent papers (analysis of the remains from old European population) detected that clades of haplogroups E3b and J were not part of pre-historic migrations into Europe, but rather spread by later historical movements.

Greek language

Dark Age
The so called Greeks have been known by a number of different names throughout history, because of the medieval joke makers.
The problem is that no consensus exists about either the time that Africans arrived or the direction whence they came.

Theories that there were Greeks in north-west Anatolia during the Middle; Late Bronze Ages or even today seem to be without foundation.

That is why hundred years of research have been wasted trying to find the presence of the unnamed Africans in Levant, Anatolia, Balkan, Crete. But they didn't exist; so called historical migrations were invented by Renaissance authors.

There was no Mycenaean invasion of Crete (056), so the Linear B writing system cannot be associated with the Mycenaean’s.

It is incredible that a people as "intelligent as the Greeks" should have forgotten how to read and write once they had learned how to do so.
For 500 years area where south Greece is now stood silent, in what historians now call the “Greek” Dark Ages.
And then, almost overnight in historical terms, a new dawn broke over areas where south Greece is now. Where did this meteoric rise to prominence come from?
Everybody knows-from Egypt.
That’s wrong. Meteoric rise to prominence come from medieval Florence.

The coming of the African / Levantine unnamed tribes to Macedonian Peninsula
Anyway, when unnamed Ethiopians, Sub Saharan, West African, Levantine tribes came trooping out of Africa ~2x00 (?) years ago, they would have looked very different from their European and Macedonian cousins.
What is certain is that when the dark-skinned Africans and Levantines met the Macedonians, it was probably like two alien groups meeting on Star Trek.

Around 1400 ad Vergerius, a teacher at Florence (although he was not a geneticist) wrote that there was a "old racial rivalry between the Africans and Macedonians". He becomes known as Arrianus.

According to the Lascaris aka Thucydides, the unnamed African tribes were named after the cities they occupied, and that they took names from other peoples, mostly from the Macedonians (aka Pelazgians).

Indeed, Demosthenes broke the 100 m world record. This fact raise question: did he was black? (901)

In 168 BC and 146 BC the Roman Empire conquered Macedonia and Achaia (not Greece) respectively.

Greeks are fictional people in fictional state Greece. Greek (adj.) is from late 14c. Meaning "the Greek language" is from late 14c.
There were no Greeks, not Hellenes, not Romai, not Shqiptars in Romania (Mazaris 1415 ad).
Ρόμα and Ρόμα people were ruled by the Florentines, Venetians, Catalans.

Population dynamics during and after Muslim (Turkish) invasion of the Balkans, substantially influenced the population structure of Ethnic Macedonia (in areas where is now Albania, Kosovo, Greece etc).
It happened in the 1500s as a result of Sultan needing workers in Yunanistan (today Greece). Sultan went all the way to Africa to pick Africans up and set them in the mountains, in growing olives and herding livestock. (Bethwell 1974, Bagley 1997, Campbell 2003)

the growth of the E-V13 in the Greeks started xxx years ago.

Roman Empire never was East, never was Byzantium empire. Byzantium is fabrication created by Bavarian Hieronymus Wolf (1516-1580) when Roman Empire was past.

Did the claim that people can be transformed by "brainwashing" is shown to be a cultural myth is true, as is stated by Spanos 1996?

Nomadic Dorian tribes never came from the North to where a bustling, urbane Macedonian civilization once stood.
Despite nearly 200 years of investigation, the historicity of the Dorian invasion has never been established, so the hapless Dorians stand naked before their creator - or, some would say, inventor.

Shqiptar Ghegs aka Albanians fake Illirians

But, the truth is different.
Ancient DNA from the Balkans and Europe showed without doubt that the so called Greeks and Shqiptars were not descended from Old Europeans.

Origin of the Shqiptars

The oldest samples of Y dna hg J were found in Iran. (623)

Ethnogenesis of the Shqiptars

E-V13 was introduced in Albanians 5 kya; Shqiptars Ghegs in R of Macedonia 8.2 kya.

J2-M241 Shqiptars might be fathered in Jordan (623); J-M241 was introduced in Albanians 4 kya; Shqiptars Ghegs in R of Macedonia 2 kya.


Gene flow from Africa to Europe is not merely reflected on the Y and X chromosomes, but corresponds to much broadest effects.

Y Hg E-M78 and R1b were associated with the spread of sickle cell disease.
Legendary pharaoh Tutankhamen was probably killed by the genetic blood disorder sickle cell disease.

All these data suggests an amalgamation of three populations/cultures that took place sometime in the past in Africa. Shqiptars started moving from the south of Egypt with, intermediate steps in Lebanon, Iran, particularly in Lorestan.

Genetic evidence suggests that the Shqiptar source populations were at least in part already differentiated before their migrations to Macedonian Peninsula and Italy. (Sarno 2016)

The Arbereshe represent an ideal link between Shqiptar Ghegs in Italy and Shqiptar Ghegs from Balkans. Arbereshe have interesting genetic structure.

If we interpret Arbereshe sample as representative of the founding Albanian population, we can conclude that the Shqiptars and Arbereshe aren't native to Europe, they are  post-Ottoman immigrants here and there.

The heritage of Ottoman Islam in the Macedonian Peninsula
Population dynamics after Muslim (Turkish) invasion of the Balkans, substantially influenced the population structure of Ethnic Macedonia in areas where is now R. Macedonia, Albania, Kosovo, Serbia, Greece etc. (Albanian speaking areas)

Albanian coast was strategically important place for Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire was Islamic in religion. Albanian ports were important places; from where some new crusaders could be penetrate into Islamic State.


Shqiptars Ghegs in Kosovo
Shqiptars Ghegs in Macedonia
Shqiptars Tosks in Albania
Arbëreshë Shqiptars in Italy

with Cochin Jews
Romani people


with Armenians; Ethiopians

Frequencies of mtDNA Haplogroups in Macedonians



was found in Romania (37ky bc), this individual had a Neanderthal ancestor as recently as four to six generations back.(302;303;305

N1-5 as I
N2 as W
R.....R* was found in Ust'-Ishim man in Siberia (43k bc),  Neanderthal gene flow into the ancestors of this individual occurred 7-13 kya before he lived. (301;302;303;304); Italy (37ky bc) (306)





R0a1 ; 60.1T ; HV

HV0 and H

HV0a1 and V